The core texts for this module are:
Brady, E. Aesthetics of the Natural Environment
(Edinburgh University Press, 2003)
S. Kemal and 1. Gaskell (eds.), Landscape, Natural Beauty
and the Arts (1993).
Further Reading List
S. Kemal and I. Gaskell (eds.) Landscape, Natural Beauty
and the Arts (Cambridge, 1993)
Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism: Special
issue on environmental aesthetics (Spring 1998). Includes articles on
‘unscenic nature’, comparative judgments of nature, aesthetics
of forests, etc.
E. Brady, ‘The Aesthetics of the Natural Environment’
in Environment and Philosophy, by Vernon Pratt, with Jane Howarth
and Emily Brady, Routledge 2000
E. Brady, Aesthetics of the Natural Environment
(Edinburgh UP, 2003)
A. Carlson, Aesthetics and the Environment: the Appreciation
of Nature, Art and Architecture, 2000. The collected papers of a
major figure in environmental aesthetics.
Environment and the Arts: Perspectives on environmental
aesthetics, ed. Arnold Berleant (Ashgate, 2002)
Malcolm Budd, Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature,
Oxford UP, 2002.
J.D. Porteous, Environmental Aesthetics: Ideas, Politics,
Planning. (Routledge, 1996) – by a geographer.
Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art
Lopes and Gaut, eds., Routledge Companion to Aesthetics,
J. Levinson, ed. Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics,
M. Kelly, ed., Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, 1998
(four volumes, very useful!)
D. Cooper (ed.) - A Companion to Aesthetics (1992).
M. Eaton, Basic Issues in Aesthetics - A concise
introduction with a section on environmental aesthetics.
C. Lyas, Aesthetics,1997.
N. Carroll, The Philosophy of Art, 1999.
Hanfling, ed. Philosophical Aesthetics, Blackwell
and Open University.
W. Tatarkiewicz, History of Aesthetics (3 volumes)
- includes extensive extracts from authors discussed.
S. Feagin and P. Maynard, eds. Aesthetics, 1997.
P. Lamarque and S. Olsen, Aesthetics and the Philosophy
of Art: The Analytic Tradition, 2003. (anthology)
R. Kearney and D. Rasmussen, eds. Continental Aesthetics:
Romanticism to Postmodernism, 2001. (anthology)
F. Sibley, Approach to Aesthetics: Collected Essays
(Oxford UP, 2001).
P. Ziff "Anything Viewed" in E. Saarinen et al,
Essays in Honour of Jaako Hintikka (1979); reprinted in Feagin
and Maynard, eds., Aesthetics, 1997.
J.O. Urmson, "What Makes a Situation Aesthetic?"
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume XXXI (1957); repr.
in Lamarque and Olsen.
John Dewey, Art as Experience (1934) - see especially chapters
D. Collinson, ‘Essay Four: Aesthetic Experience’
in Hanfling, ed., Philosophical Aesthetics, 1992 - provides an
excellent overview of different theories.
J. Stolnitz, ‘The Aesthetic Attitude’ in Aesthetics
and Philosophy of Art Criticism, pp. 32-42
G. Dickie, "The Myth of the Aesthetic Attitude",
American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol . 1 (1964); reprinted in
Dickie, Sclafini and Roblin.
M.C. Rose, "Nature as an Aesthetic Concept", B.J.A.
Vol 16 (1976).
M.C. Beardsley, Aesthetics, ch. XI and Postscript
1980 section 10, The Aesthetic Point of View, Essays 1 and 16.
M. Hancher, "Poems versus Trees: The Aesthetics of
Monroe Beardsley", J.A.A.C., Vol 31 (1972).
T. Aquinas, Extracts in Tatarkiewicz, History,
Vol 2 (above)
Articles "Aquinas" and "Medieval and Renaissance
Aesthetics: in A Companion to Aesthetics.
J. Stolnitz, ‘Beauty: Some Stages in the History of
an Idea’, Journal of the History of Ideas XXII (1961),
Symposium of articles, ‘Beauty Matters’ in JAAC,
N. Zangwill, ‘Beauty’ in Oxford Handbook
of Aesthetics, 2003.
Kant, Critique of Judgment , sections 1-22, 33-40.
G. Santayana, The Sense of Beauty, 1955 .
M. Mothersill, Beauty Restored, 1984.
J. Moravcsik, "Beauty in Art and Nature",
Philosophical Studies, Vol 38 (1980).
M. Mothersill, ‘Beauty’ in Cooper, ed., A
Companion to Aesthetics, 1992.
Stephen Barker, ‘Kant on Experiencing Beauty’,
in Meerbote and Hudson, eds., Kant’s Aesthetics, Ridgeview,
Anne Sheppard, Aesthetics, 1987, ch.5.
Mary Warnock, Imagination, 1976, part II.
A. Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Idea, Vol.
III, ch. xxxiii and xxxxiv.
P. Gardiner, Schopenhauer, ch.5.
T.J. Diffey, "Schopenauer's Account of Aesthetic Experience"
B.J.A. Vol. 30 (1990).
Cheryl Foster, 'Schopenhauer's Subtext on Natural Beauty,
B.J.A. Vol 32 (1992).
D. Whewell, ‘Kant’ in Cooper, ed., A Companion
to Aesthetics, 1992.
D. Crawford, ‘Kant’ in Routledge Companion
Salim Kemal, Kant’s Aesthetic Theory: An Introduction,
A useful and readable commentary.
Three articles by Malcolm Budd on "Kant and Natural
Beauty", B.J.A., January, April, July 1998 issues (revised
versions in his new book, Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature).
E. Schaper, "Taste, Sublimity and Genius", in
P. Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant.
T. Cohen and P. Guyer, "Introduction to Kant's Aesthetics"
in the authors’ Essays in Kant's Aesthetics; repr. in Dickie,
Sclafani & Roblin.
D.W. Crawford, Kant's Aesthetic Theory (1974).
A more extended but still manageable commentary on Kant.
S. Korner, Kant, 1955, ch.8. (Also useful for other
aspects of Kant's philosophy relevant to his aesthetics - see especially
S. Kemal, "The Significance of Natural Beauty",
BJA, Vol 19 (1979). (On the relationship with Kant, between nature
Kant, Critique of Judgement, Sections 23-29,
Burke, Of the Sublime and Beautiful. 1757.
M.H. Nicholson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory, 1959.
S. Monk, The Sublime, 1960.
D. Knowles, ‘Figures in a Landscape’ in Virtue
and Taste: Essays on politics, ethics and aesthetics in memory of Flint
Schier ed. by Dudley Knowles and John Skorupski,1993.
P. Crowther, "The Aesthetic Domain: Locating the Sublime", BJA,
Vol 29 (1989).
P. Crowther, The Kantian Sublime, 1989.
J.F. Lyotard, Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime,
E.F. Carritt, The Theory of Beauty, ch. IX.
G. Shapiro, "From the Sublime to the Political",
New Literary History, Vol. 16 (1984).
J. Addison, The Spectator, no. 412, 23 June 1712.
W. Gilpin, Three Essays on Picturesque Beauty,
Uvedale Price, Essays on the Picturesque, 1794.
Richard Payne Knight, An Analytical Inquiry into the
Principles of Taste (1805), Part II, ch.II "Of Imagination".
J. Ruskin, Modern Painters, IV, Part V ch. 1.
D. Townsend, "The Picturesque" JAAC,
Y.Saito, ‘The Aesthetics of Unscenic Nature’,
Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 56:2, Spring 1998, pp.
S. Ross, ‘The Picturesque: An 18th c. Debate’,
JAAC, Winter 1987.
C. Hussey, The Picturesque.
M. Price, "The Picturesque Moment", in F.W. Hilles
and H. Bloom (eds.), From Sensibility to romanticism.
P. Bicknell, Beauty, Horror and Immensity: Picturesque
Landscape in Britain 1750-1850 (an illustrated catalogue of an exhibition
Cognitive theories of aesthetic appreciation of the natural
A. Carlson, Aesthetics and the Environment: the Appreciation
of Nature, Art and Architecture, 2000. His collected papers.
(1979) A. Carlson, "Appreciation and the Natural Environment".
J.A.A.C. Vol 37 (see also new version in Feagin and Maynard,
(1979); "Nature, Aesthetic Judgement and Objectivity", J.A.A.C.,
(1981); "Nature and Positive Aesthetics", Environmental
Ethics, Vol 6
(1984); "On Appreciating Agricultural Landscapes", J.A.A.C.,
(1993); "Appreciating Art and Appreciating Nature", in Kemal
and Gaskell op.cit.
(1995); "Nature, Aesthetic Appreciation and Knowledge", JAAC,
Carlson may be softening his position in his article in
Berleant’s collection Environment and the Arts, 2002.
K.L. Walton, "Categories of Art", Philosophical
Review, vol 79 (1970); reprinted in several editions.
H. Rolston, "Does Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature
Need to be Science-Based?" BJA Vol 35, (1996).
Robert Stecker, "The Correct and the Appropriate in
Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature", BJA, (October 1997).
P. Matthews, ‘Scientific Knowledge and the Aesthetic
Appreciation of Nature’, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism,
Glenn Parsons, ‘Nature Appreciation, Science and Positive
Aesthetics’, BJA, 42:3, 2002.
Y. Saito, "Is there a Correct Aesthetic Appreciation
of Nature?" Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol 18 (1984).
L. Duane Willard "On Preserving Nature's Aesthetic
Features", Environmental Ethics, Vol 2 (1980).
Non-cognitive theories of aesthetic apreciation
Arnold Berleant, Aesthetics of Environment, (1992).
Berleant, Living in the Landscape, (1997).
Berleant, "The Aesthetics of Art and Nature",
in Kemal and Gaskell.
For Berleant’s latest work, visit his homepage at:
E. Brady, "Don't Eat the Daisies: Disinterestedness
and the Situated Aesthetic" Environmental Values, February
E. Brady, "Imagination in the Aesthetic Appreciation
of Nature", JAAC, (Spring 1998).
R. Fudge, ‘Imagination and the Science-Based Aesthetic
Appreciation of Unscenic Nature’, JAAC, Summer 2001.
M. Budd, "The Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature",
BJA, Vol 36, (1996).
N. Carroll, "On Being Moved by Nature" in Kemal
C. Foster, ‘The Narrative and the Ambient in Environmental
Aesthetics’, JAAC: Special Issue: Environmental Aesthetics,
R.W. Hepburn, "Contemporary Aesthetics and the Neglect
of Natural Beauty" in Hepburn, Wonder (1984), and in B.
Williams & A. Montefiore (eds.), British Analytical Philosophy.
Hepburn, "Landscape and Metaphysical Imagination",
Environmental Values (August 1996).
Hepburn, The Reach of the Aesthetic: Collected Essays
on Art and Nature, 2001.
J. Howarth, 'Nature's Moods", BJA, Vol 35,
S. Godlovitch, "Icebreakers: Environmentalism and Natural
Aesthetics", Journal of Applied Philosophy, Vol. 11 (1994).
S. Godlovitch, "Valuing Nature and the Autonomy of
Natural Aesthetics", BJA (April 1998).
R. Moore, ‘Appreciating Natural Beauty’, Journal
of Aesthetic Education: Symposium on natural aesthetics, 33:3, 1999,
Aesthetic Judgments of the Natural Environment
J. Thompson, "Aesthetics and the Value of Nature"
Environmental Ethics, Vol 17, (1995).
E. Brady, ‘Aesthetic Character and Aesthetic Integrity
in Environmental Conservation’, Environmental Ethics, vol.
S. Godlovitch, ‘Evaluating Nature Aesthetically’
Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 56:2, Spring 1998.
Aesthetics and Ethics
C. Foster, ‘Aesthetic Disillusionment: Environment,
Ethics, Art’ Environmental Values, Vol 1 (1992).
S. Godlovitch, ‘Offending Against Nature’, Environmental
Values, May 1998.
R.W. Hepburn, "Serious and Trivial in the Aesthetic
Appreciation of Nature" in Kemal and Gaskell.
R.W. Hepburn, ‘Nature Humanised: Nature Respected’
Environmental Values, vol. 7, 1998.
Saito, Y. ‘Appreciating Nature on its Own Terms’,
Environmental Ethics, Summer 1998.
E. Brady, ‘Aesthetics, Ethics and the Natural Environment
‘ in Arnold Berleant, ed., Environment and the Arts: Perspectives
on Environmental Aesthetics (revised version of this appears in my
book, chapter 8).
Holmes Rolston, ‘From Beauty to Duty: Aesthetics of
Nature and Environmental Ethics’, in Berleant, ed., Environment
and the Arts: Perspectives on Environmental Aesthetics.
Marcia M. Eaton, Merit: Aesthetic and Ethical,
Nature wild and nature modified
R.G. Collingwood, Outlines of a Philosophy of Art, Ch 3,
in Collingwood Essays in the Philosophy of Art, edited by A.
A. Carlson, "On Appreciating Agricultural Landscapes",
J.A.A.C. Vol.43 (1985) and in his book, Aesthetics and the
P. von Bonsdorff and A. Haapala, eds., Aesthetics in
the Human Environment, 1998.
P. Shephard, Man in the Landscape: A Historic View of
the Aesthetics of Nature, 2nd Ed (1991).
Nature in and through art
R.W. Hepburn, "Nature in the Light of Art", in
Philosophy and the Arts, Royal Inst. of Phil. Lectures, Vol 6;
reprinted in Hepburn, Wonder.
A. Haapala, ‘Art and Nature: The Interplay of Works
of Art and Natural Phenomena’ in Berleant, Environment and the
A. Forge, "Art/Nature" also in Philosophy
and the Arts (see last entry).
R. Rees, "The Scenery Cult: Changing Landscape Tastes
Over Three Centuries", Landscape Vol. 19 (1975).
A. Carlson, "Appreciation and the Natural Environment",
JAAC, Vol 37 (1979).
M. Andrews, Landscape and Western Art, 1998.
Kenneth Clarke, Landscape into Art.
A. Boersch, "Landscape: Exemplar of Beauty", BJA,
Vol. 11 (1971).
E.H. Gombrich, "The Renaissance Theory of Art and the
Rise of the Landscape", in Gombrich, Norm and Form.
John Ruskin, Modern Painters.
Peter Fuller, Theoria: Art and the Absence of Grace.
R.H. Wilenski, John Ruskin
R.G. Collingwood, "Ruskin's Philosophy" in Collingwood,
Essays in the Philosophy of Art.
J. Turner, The Politics of Landscape.
J. Barrell, The Idea of Landscape and the Sense of Place
1730-1840 (both on the description of landscape in poetry).
D. Crawford, "Nature and Art: Some Dialectical Relationships",
A. Carlson, "Is Environmental Art an Aesthetic Affront
to Nature?", Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol 16 (1986).
Stephanie Ross, "Gardens, Earthworks and Environmental
Art", in Kemal and Gaskell.
E. Brady, ‘Rooted Art?: Environmental Art and Our
Attachment to Nature’, in
IO: Internet Journal of Applied Aesthetics, vol. 1, Spring 1998;
issue on environmental art: http:/www.lpt.fi/io/io98/brady.html
S. Boettger, Earthworks: Art and the Landscape of the
J. Beardsley, Earthworks and Beyond
A. Sonfist, ed., Art in the Land.
Landscape gardening should perhaps come under the heading
of environmental art. There is a large selection of books on the subject
(classmark VDZ) in the library. See especially:
John Dixon Hunt, Greater Perfections, 2000.
S. Ross, What Gardens Mean, 1998.
Mara Miller, The Garden as an Art, 1993.
A. Carlson, ‘The Aesthetic Appreciation of Japanese
Gardens’, BJA, vol. 37, 1997; and reprinted in his book.
Studies by geographers
J.D. Porteous, Environmental Aesthetics: Ideas, Politics,
Planning. (Routledge, 1996)
J. Appleton, The Experience of Nature, Chs 3-6;
and Symbolism of Habitat (1990).
Yi-Fu Tuan, Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception,
Attitudes and Values. (1974).
Tuan, Passing Strange and Wonderful: Aesthetics, Nature
and Culture, (Kodansha, 1995).
E. Relph, Rational Landscapes and Humanistic Geography
P.T. Newby, "Towards and Understanding of Landscape
Quality", BJA, Vol 18. (1978).
E.H. Zube et al (eds.), Landscape Assessment: Values,
Peceptions and Resources. (1975).
D.W. Meining (ed.), The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes,
E.C. Penning-Rowsell and D. Lowenthal (ds.), Landscape
Meanings and Values, (1986).
P. Dearden and B. Sadler (eds.), Landscape Evaluation:
Approaches and Applications (1989).
D. Cosgrove and S. Daniels (eds.), The Iconography of
S. Pugh (ed.) Reading Landscapes (1990).
S. Bourassa, The Aesthetics of Landscape (1991).
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS LIST: BJA: British Journal of
Aesthetics, JAAC: Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism; DSJ: Dickie,
Sclafani and Roblin (eds.): Aesthetics: A Critical Anthology,
2nd ed. Kennick: William Kennick, Art and Philosophy.
List compiled by Emily Brady, John Benson and Jane Howarth;