Titles in the Pamphlets Series
- Athenian Democracy, John Thorley (2nd edn 2004). ISBN: 978-0-415-31934-X. This pamphlet outlines the development and operation of Athenian democracy to the end of the fifth century BC. Separate sections examine the prelude to democracy, the emergence of a democratic system, and the way this system worked in practice. A final section focuses on the questions. How the success of Athenian democracy to be judged? Who benefitted from it? Was it an efficient system of government? To what extent should Athenian democracy be seen as the forerunner of democracies in the modern world? This second edition incorporates the results of much recent research.
- Alexander the Great, Richard Stoneman (1997). ISBN: 978-0-415-15050-7. This publication introduces to readers unfamiliar with the ancient world the career and impact of the greatest of Macedonian conquerors. It discusses the main themes of his reign. As well as tackling problems of interpretation, the author includes: an examination of the written and other sources and the problems of working with them; discussion of archaeological and numismatic evidence; an outline of the Macedonian background; insight into Alexander’s education and ideas; exploration of Alexander’s claim to divinity; assessment of Alexander’s short and long-term achievements; a study of his influence in antiquity.
- The Fall of the Roman Republic, David Shotter (2nd edn 2005). ISBN: 978-0-415-31940-4. David Shotter shows how the Republic was destabilised by the consequences of the unplanned growth of the Roman empire. The book draws on a wealth of post-war scholarship to tackle in an accessible manner the problems faced by the Roman nobility and especially its attitude to government. It highlights the chief issues and demonstrates how groups and individuals sought their own advantage from the opportunities which imperial expansion offered These troubles led to confusion and chaos to which the only perceived solution was the introduction of a form of permanent supervision for the Roman republic in the form of the Principate.
- Augustus Caesar, David Shotter (1992). ISBN: 978-0-415-06048-6. History sees Augustus Caesar as the first emperor of Rome whose system of ordered government provided a firm and stable basis for the expansion and prosperity of the Roman Empire over the next two centuries. In this book Professor Shotter explores the background to Augustus’s spectacular rise to power, his political and imperial reforms and his personal qualities which encompassed both statesmanship of a high order and unscrupulous ambition. He also evaluates the legacy Augustus left to his successors.
- Tiberius Caesar, David Shotter (2nd edn 2004). ISBN: 978-0-415-31946-3. In his new edition, Professor Shotter provides an updated study of the character and the life of Tiberius Caesar, heir of Augustus and Emperor of Rome from AD 14 to AD 37. Both the personality and nature of the reign of Tiberius have long been an enigma. He was a man of evident ability, yet his life ended in frustration and disillusionment for both himself and his subjects. The book examines the influences on his early life, the problems he experienced as the successor of Augustus, the difficulties he found in his relationships with his contemporaries, and his struggle to fill the demands of his role. This second edition includes extended appendices, a time line and a glossary of terms.
- Roman Britain, David Shotter (2nd edn 2004). ISBN: 978-0-415-31944-7. The author offers a concise introduction to this increasingly popular period, drawing on the wealth of recent scholarship to explain the progress of the Romans and their objectives in conquering Britain. Concentrating on the changes experienced by the British as part of the Roman Empire, he surveys the diversity of peoples, activities and aspirations as Roman rule expanded and was consolidated. He also explains how, and why, a thriving Romano-British economy and society emerged and how a protracted period of internal feuding within the Roman empire eventually led to withdrawal from Britain.
- Caligula, Sam Wilkinson (2005). ISBN: 978-0-415-35768-3. Caligula was one of the most controversial of all Roman Emperors. This book studies his accession to power, his relationship with the Senate and the reasons for his assassination. It also attempts to explain why the extant literary sources are so uniformly hostile and also whether the Emperor’s domestic and foreign policies now deserve to be considered in a somewhat more favourable light.
- Nero, David Shotter (2nd edn 2005). ISBN: 978- 0-415-31942-0. Professor Shotter provides a fresh account of the actions and reputation of one of the most notorious figures in Roman history. He examines the domestic and international policies of the reign, including discussion of the persecution of the Christians. He studies Nero’s family background, and his perception of himself: did he see himself as a god-incarnate? In a balanced account, Professor Shotter emphasises Nero’s cultural achievements and analyzes the reasons for his downfall, noting that the Emperor remained popular among some sections of Roman society to the end. The book ends with a discussion of the aftermath of Nero’s reign, which focuses on the actions of Galba, Otho and Vitellius. Helpful maps, appendices, a time-chart and a glossary are all included.
- The Emperor Constantine, Hans A. Pohlsander (2nd edn 2004). ISBN: 978-0-415-31938-2. In this account of one of the most important figures in ancient history, Hans Pohlsander describes the Roman world into which Constantine was born and assesses his ability both as a soldier and a statesman. He explains the significance of Constantine as Rome’s first Christian emperor and discusses the importance of establishing a new capital at Byzantium which would prove the basis of a Byzantine state which survived for over a thousand years. His assessment of Constantine’s achievement incorporates a cultural and artistic focus, based on the analysis of coins, architecture, sculpture and the paintings of the period. He also revisits the perhaps overly influential assessments of Constantine given by Edward Gibbon and Jacob Burkhardt.
- Charlemagne, P.D. King (1986) ISBN: 0978-0-415-09458-5 In this study of perhaps the most influential figure in the medieval world, Dr King examines the rise of the Carolingians and the significance of their expansion into Saxony and to the south. He discusses the significance of relations with the papacy and of the re-establishment of a distinct western emperorship. Central to Dr King’s analysis is his discussion of Charlemagne’s intellectual, institutional and, above all, religious objectives. He asks how far Charlemagne was responsible for making possible the ideal of a unified, Christian western Europe.
- The Reign of Stephen: Kingship, Warfare and Government in Twelfth-Century England, Keith J. Stringer (1994). ISBN/ISSN: 0-415-01415-8. In this Pamphlet, Professor Keith Stringer uses the evidence from a challenged succession to examine the relationship between government, warfare, and the rise and fall of medieval states. He explains how, and why, this reign witnessed the fragmentation of England and halted, albeit only for a brief period, the steady expansion of the role of the Crown in society and government. Using primary sources and recent research, he offers an important re-evaluation of the so-called 'Anarchy’ and a radical reassessment of Stephen’s ability as a ruler. He argues that, while the reign was transitional rather than fundamentally anarchic, it provided ample evidence of the ways in which violence and civil disorder could help to create new structures of authority and control.
- The Age of Discovery, 1400-1600, David Arnold (2nd ed, 2002) ISBN: 978-0-415-27996-8. The so-called Age of Discovery, encompassing Europeans’ voyages to Africa, Asia and the Americas and the cultural changes which voyages and settlements brought, is one of the most dramatic features of the late medieval and early modern periods. The book explains motivations for the voyages and the extent to which European objectives were achieved in sometimes extremely hostile and unfamiliar territories. This second edition includes new chapters on the very idea of ‘Discovery’ as conceived by the Europeans and on the impact of biological and environmental factors in both encouraging and limiting European expansion.
- Henry VII, Alexander Grant (1986). ISBN: 978-0-415-04037-X. This Pamphlet challenges the idea that Henry VII’s accession by conquest in 1485 represented little more than a continuity in government and that Henry was, like his predecessor Edward IV, a competent, but essentially medieval, monarch. Dr Grant argues that Henry’s ability to secure lasting political stability represented a fundamental shift of focus. Much of Henry’s government was new and it was his initiatives that later Tudor monarchs and government servants, such as Thomas Cromwell, built on. Henry VII exerted much greater personal control than most of his predecessors and, in doing so, laid the foundations of a ‘strong’ Tudor dynasty. Perhaps it was Henry VII, rather than Cromwell, who was primarily responsible for effecting a genuine ‘revolution in government’.
- Henry VIII and the English Reformation, D G Newcombe (1995). ISBN: 978-0-415-10728-8. When Henry VIII died in 1547 he left a church in England that had broken with Rome - but was it Protestant? The English Reformation was quite different in its methods, motivations and indeed its consequences from the development of Protestantism which took place on the continent at much the same time. This book provides a clear guide to the main strands of historical thought about the English reformation. It examines the influences of continental reform on England, the significance of Henry’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon and the nature of the break with Rome. It also analyses the political and religious consequences of that rupture. It assesses both how much England had been ‘reformed’ by 1547 and how far Henry's own wishes on religious matters had been met by the time of his death.
- The Problem of the Poor in Tudor and Early Stuart England, Lee Beier (1983). ISBN: 978-0-416-35060-7. This Pamphlet makes extensive use of archival material relating to the operation of the poor laws at a time when population growth and economic uncertainties made poverty more obviously a ‘problem’ for government than had previously been the case. Legislation covered a very wide range of occupational groups and was also concerned with the growing problem of vagrancy and ‘masterless men’, detached, especially in the growing towns, from established institutions of oversight and control administered by the powerful and the propertied. Central to Dr Beier’s argument is the development of the poor laws as part of the corpus of rights which Englishmen could assert. These laws were often slackly, inconsistently or incompetently administered but property owners believed their passage necessary to stave off the threat of widespread social disorder.
- Luther, Michael Mullett (1986). ISBN: 978-0-415-10932-9. Professor Mullett’s study places Luther’s career firmly within the context of German politics and society in the early sixteenth century in order to explain how his challenge to the Roman church found such a ready response not only through much of Germany but in many states of northern Europe. Despite Luther’s own determination to place emphasis on the word of God, Professor Mullett explains the centrality of Luther’s own achievements, not least his ability to realign the Church’s theology with that of the New Testament. Professor Mullett explains sometimes complex theological positions in a lucid and accessible fashion.
- Calvin, Michael Mullett (1989). ISBN: 978-0-415-00057-2. Calvin was the most dynamic force in the Protestant Reformation, impressive both as a scholar and theologian but also as a civic religious leader in Geneva. Calvin’s education and upbringing were against the background of Christian humanism, one of the most impressive intellectual movements of the early modern period. Professor Mullett explains how an intellectual revolution helped to shape Calvin’s thought and also how important scholarship remained throughout his career, despite the turbulent political background against which he worked and, indeed, helped to create. He also discusses Calvin’s longer-term impact on religious thought and allegiance in the sixteenth century.
- The Counter-Reformation, Michael Mullett (1984) ISBN: 0978-0-416-36060-2. Professor Mullett’s study urges students to see the so-called Counter Revolution not merely as a series of institutional reforms imposed from the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic church as a counter-blast to the Protestant Reformation but a multi-faceted process of Catholic renewal. In this Pamphlet, he concentrates also on the impact made by a movement which is perhaps better described as a ‘Catholic Reformation’. The main thrusts of this movement differed according to context. Thus in the German states, the main emphasis lay on repelling the onward march of Protestantism. In Italy and Spain, on the other hand, Church leaders concentrated much more on Catholic renewal, involving the mission to make people more pious and liturgically informed.
- Elizabeth I and Religion 1558-1603, Susan Doran (1994). ISBN: 978-0-415-07352-9. Susan Doran describes and analyses the process of the Elizabethan Reformation, placing it in both an English and a European context. She examines the religious views and policies of the Queen, the making of the 1559 Church settlement and its attendant reforms. The changing beliefs of the English people are discussed, and the author charts the fortunes of both Puritanism and Catholicism. Finally, she looks at the strengths and weaknesses of Elizabeth I as the Chruch’s Supreme Governor and, more widely at the key developments affecting the Church of England during her reign.
- Elizabeth I and Foreign Relations, 1558-1603, Susan Doran (2000). ISBN: 978-0-415-15355-7. At her accession in 1558 Elizabeth I inherited a troublesome legacy, which included a long history of wars against France and Scotland. This international situation was becoming a huge financial burden on the English crown and on the wider economy. Dr Doran assesses the course of, and motivations behind, England’s foreign policy during the Elizabeth’s reign. Her study includes coverage of Elizabeth’s relations with France, Spain and the Netherlands and the impact of the Reformation on the conduct of foreign policy. The Pamphlet also assesses the extent Elizabeth’s success as a stateswoman and how far, on the evidence of the later years of her reign, she can be considered a successful war leader.
- The Scientific Revolution, Peter Harman (1983) ISBN: 0-415-35040-2. The Scientific Revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries represented much more than a key turning point in attitudes towards the natural world, important though that was. It was a broad social and cultural phenomenon which, in challenging so many orthodoxies, transformed the way in which educated Europeans viewed their world. It incorporated experimentally-based science into the intellectual milieu of seventeenth-century Europe. In this Pamphlet, Professor Harman outlines, and explains in accessible form, the key innovations, with special reference to astronomy, natural sciences and medicine.
- James I, Christopher Durston (1993). ISBN: 978-0-415-07779-6. James I has traditionally been portrayed as a foolish and unpleasant man. However, from the 1970s he has been increasingly rehabilitated historians. They have begun to appreciate that in some areas, in particular foreign policy and religion, he pursued sensible policies and achieved a considerable degree of success. Christopher Durston deals with the personality and political ability of the monarch, the court, finance, parliament, foreign policy and religion, including his record in Scotland and the legacies of Elizabeth I. The extent to which James’s claim to be already an experienced monarch when he arrived in England in 1603 is also assessed. The arguments of the revisionist historians concerning James’s relations with his parliaments are examined in detail, as is the so-called ‘post-revisionist’ backlash which holds that James’s modest virtues as a ruler have been overplayed.
- Charles I, Christopher Durston (1998). ISBN: 978-0-415-14340-3. This book considers the personality of Charles and the effect of his decisions as ruler. It assesses whether his abilities began to match the range of the challenges he faced in the 1630s and 1640s. Was he able to understand, still less come to terms with, men whose opinions were different from his own? Durston assesses the monarch’s role in the outbreak of civil wars and in the deepening of the crisis of the 1640s. Centring on the degree of personal responsibility Charles should bear for the events of his reign, the author considers: contemporary and modern portrayals of Charles’ reign; the King’s military leadership; the context and prelude to his execution, and the validity of the status claimed for him in the 1650s and beyond as a ‘martyr king’.
- The British Wars, 1637-1651, Peter Gaunt (1997). ISBN: 978-0-415-12966-4. During the 1640s, the kingdoms ruled by Charles I - England & Wales, Scotland and Ireland - were gripped by a series of civil wars and conflicts which were, in part, distinct to each kingdom, but which also overlapped and interacted, leading some British historians to suggest that they should be portrayed as an integrated ‘British’ conflict. This book offers a concise history of the wars, from the beginning of Charles I’s travails with the Scots in 1637 to the conclusion of the wars at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. It also traces the English conquest of Ireland and Scotland. Providing a clear, concise and balanced account of events, this Pamphlet explores the relationship between the three kingdoms, looks at military, political and religious developments in each assesses whether the wars can be seen as a single ‘British’ conflict or as a series of inter-related but essentially separate wars. It concludes with a critical bibliography of the most important works because recent historiography has radically altered our understanding of this topic.
- England Without a King 1649-60, Austin Woolrych (1983). ISBN: 978-0-415-10456-4. This introduction to one of the most controversial periods in English history is written by one of the foremost twentieth-century scholars of the period who was also the founding Professor and Head of the History Department at Lancaster. Professor Woolrych begins by explaining why a republic came about in 1649, an outcome no one imagined at the beginning of the Civil Wars. He then traces its development of republican government through the Commonwealth period and on into the Protectorate, headed first by Oliver Cromwell (1653-8) and, briefly, latterly and probably fatally by his son Richard (1658-60) who inherited problems with which he was not equipped to deal. He explains the continued importance of the Army throughout the period and also why the Republic had great difficulty in winning over propertied opinion in the localities to its reforming agenda. The book also provides a shrewd assessment of Oliver Cromwell, the dominant but endlessly perplexing figure of the age.
- Richelieu and Mazarin, Geoffrey Treasure (1998). ISBN: 978-0-415-15354-9. This book compares two striking, but very different, statesmen and evaluates their careers and achievements in the light of modern research. It explores all aspects of the two men’s careers including the historical background, their personal characters, aims and values and their experience of power. Geoffrey Treasure examines their reputations at the time of their deaths, explaining why Richelieu, in particular, was widely disliked as an authoritarian minister who raised taxes. He also discusses changes in perception concerning what ‘absolutism’ represented and he examines the accomplishments of both leaders in this context.
- The Thirty Years War, Stephen J Lee (1991) ISBN: 0978-0-415-06027-3 In this book, Stephen Lee attempts to make sense of one of the most complex periods in European history. He studies the importance of religion in both the origins of the conflict in 1618 and in its long course. He also examines the significance of both rebellion and dynastic rivalry. He leads students through the key elements in the debate about the nature of the war and, in particular, of its impact on the German states. The book concludes with a detailed study of how the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) attempted to produce a permanent settlement to a protracted and complex struggle.
- The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1618-1740, Margaret Shennan (1995). ISBN: 978-0-415-12938-9. This book surveys the rise of Prussia from the early seventeenth century to 1740. The author begins with the dynastic consolidation of Hohenzollern lands in 1618 which laid the foundations for the emergence of the single state of Brandenburg-Prussia. She highlights and evaluates the role of its rulers: Frederick William I, the Great Elector (1640-88), the Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg (1688-1713), who also became (as Frederick I) the first King of Prussia in 1701 and Frederick William I (1713-40). In explaining the growing importance of Prussia as a European power, the author evaluates the importance of: international relations; social and economic structures; domestic pressures; boundary changes over the period; and ethical & cultural influences. She also examines the impact of idiosyncratic personalities involved.
- Peter the Great, Stephen J Lee (1993) ISBN: 0978-0-415-09279-5 Peter the Great was the first Russian ruler to make a permanent impact on western Europe. In this illustrated book, Stephen Lee explains both why Peter gave such prominence to a programme of territorial expansion and how he effected wide-ranging reforms within his sprawling empire. He notes that, although the amount of new territory which Peter acquired was relatively modest, his impact on European diplomacy was very significant. Peter’s modernizing agenda within his empire is discussed in some detail and students are introduced to the debate on the extent of the impact of his reforms within Russia. The book concludes with a consideration of whether Tsar Peter I deserves his sobriquet ‘Great’.
- Restoration England: Politics and Finance 1660-1688, Robert M. Bliss (1985). ISBN: 978-0-416-37630-4. In this Pamphlet Professor Bliss explains why the Restoration Settlement contributed towards what proved to be a permanent re-establishment of monarchical rule in England. Its key themes concern the nature of governance. How did the relationship between crown, parliament and the localities become secure and increasingly stable? What was the nature of the relationship between local government and the central state? To what extent did religious differences within England continue to threaten the stability of the state? The pamphlet explains how Charles II used a mixture of shrewdness, dissimulation and the ability to deflect many controversial issues to establish and sustain his position. It also discusses how far fears of Catholicism threatened Charles’s authority, especially in the last seven years of his reign. The author examines both the strength of the legacy Charles handed over to his brother in 1685 and how James squandered it within three years.
- James II and English Politics 1678-1688,
Michael Mullett (1994). ISBN: 978-0-415-09042-3. Professor Mullett reconsiders, in the light of altering perceptions of the English past, the events of the crucial decade 1678-88: from the Restoration era through the exclusion crisis, and subsequent reign of James to the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688. He focuses on the central role of James as Duke of York, and from 1685-1688, King of England, but locates the growing difficulties of his reign within the wider context of political and religious trends. He assesses the extent to which James’s downfall is accounted for by a still powerful fear of ‘popery’ and whether longer term factors were more important to the events of 1688 than was James’s intense campaign of Catholicization in the last two years of his reign.
- Louis XIV, J. H. Shennan (1986). ISBN: 978-0-415-09068-7. Professor Shennan surveys in a concise but authoritative manner both the domestic and foreign policies of one of the longest reigns in European history. He examines the influences which helped to shape Louis XIV when he began majority rule in 1661. He then analyzes the nature of the 'Sun King's rule' within France, discussing his relationship with the nobility and policies designed to strengthen both the authority of the monarchy and the efficiency of French government. The growing power of France in Europe in the period to 1688 is discussed in some detail, as is the reason why French power abroad was checked during the almost continuous warfare which raged during the last years of Louis's rule. Professor Shennan also explains why French ideas and French taste became increasingly dominant in the culture of later-seventeenth and early eighteenth century Europe.
- International Relations in Europe, 1689-1789, J.H. Shennan (1995). ISBN: 978-0-415-07780-X. This Pamphlet examines the changing criteria upon which European relations were based between 1689 and 1789, a complex period which saw the decline of dynasticism, the emergence of economic power as a concomitant of military might, the growth of British influence the dawn of nationalist movements and aspirations. Professor Shennan discusses ideas about collective security in eighteenth-century Europe and also explains why the colonial struggle for supremacy, largely between France and Spain on one side and Great Britain on the other, assumed such importance towards the end of the period. For easy reference, the Pamphlet also contains extensive chronologies of the important battles, treaties and alliances of the period.
- France Before the Revolution, J. H. Shennan (2nd edn, 1995). ISBN: 978-0-415-11945-6. This fully revised second edition takes account of important revisionist historical work undertaken in the 1970s and 1980s. Covering the period between Louis XIV’s death in 1715 and the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, it discusses France’s accomplishments in international affairs, in commercial expansion and in intellectual and artistic life and examines how far these accomplishments came at a heavy eventual cost to the old order. Professor Shennan examines the significance of longer-term political, social and economic forces in causing the Revolution. He also asks how far it was changing perceptions of government, from one of divine-right kingship towards the idea of a national enterprise, ultimately undermined the Bourbon dynasty.
- The American Revolution, M. J. Heale (1986) ISBN: 0978-0-415-38910-4. In this Pamphlet, Professor Heale traces the growing frustration of the American colonists with British policies for financial control and higher levels of taxation in the 1760s and early 1770s. He shows why the thirteen colonies launched their successful attempt to break from British rule. He also explains why some historians call the conflict which followed a ‘War of Independence’ while others, particularly in the United States, prefer to see it as an ‘American Revolution’. From the colonial perspective, many believed that they were participating in a constitutional and ideological revolution. In a perspective missed by many British treatments of the topic, Professor Heale explains how the newly independent states continued their process of ‘revolution’ which culminated in a radically new constitutional settlement forged in the years 1787-89.
- William Pitt the Younger, Eric J. Evans (1999). ISBN: 978-0-415-13285-1. William Pitt the Younger is usually characterised as a reforming peace-time prime minister after the American War of Independence or an inexpert leader of the nation during the first phase of the wars between Britain and France. In this Pamphlet, Professor Evans provides a detailed context to the leader’s political career and analyses his achievements. He outlines Pitt's economic, domestic and foreign policy as well as detailing the changes in party politics and monarchy during the period. Re-evaluating the career of this much-studied Prime Minister in the light of recent research, he makes the controversial statement that Pitt's life does not fit into the two neat stereotypes of reformer or reactionary which are usually presented.
- The French Wars, 1792-1815, Charles Esdaile (2001) ISBN 978-0-415-15042-6. This book, which incorporates time lines and maps traces the course of the wars fought by Revolutionary and Napoleonic France against a succession of mostly short-lived coalition before the French were finally forced to capitulate in 1814-15. He explains why the often conflicting interests of the other major powers made a concerted attack on French military supremacy difficult to achieve. In an extensive concluding chapter, Dr Esdaile surveys the considerable historiography which has built up around the idea that the Revolutionary and Napoleonic armies represented the fighting force of a new political order based on the rights of man and challenging ancien regime ideas grounded in authority and in the hereditary principle.
- Political Parties in Britain 1783-1867,
Eric J. Evans (1986). ISBN: 0978- 0-416-37400-X. In this study, Professor Evans explains how a recognizably modern party political system emerged out of the much looser, family-based attachments of the eighteenth century. He explains the sometimes complex terminology which surrounds the two main parties, explaining how the Whig and Tory parties evolved into Liberal and Conservative respectively. He also examines why much tighter party organisation was necessary at the end of the period than at its beginning. The development of political parties is discussed in the context both of a contemporaneous decline of the monarchy as an independent power within the constitution and also of the changing balance of importance between the Lords and the Commons.
- Regency England: The Age of Lord Liverpool, John Plowright (1996). ISBN: 978-0-415-12140-X. The early nineteenth century was marked by public disorder, governmental repression and correction. It was a period of revolution, reaction and reform. This pamphlet focuses on three key issues: the factors which combined to produce the turmoil, radical upsurge nd uprisings of 1812-21 and the severity with which they were put down; the validity of the distinction between ‘repressive’ and ‘liberal’ phases of the administration; the ability of Lord Liverpool as a long-serving Prime Minister.
- Britain and Foreign Affairs, 1815-1885: Europe and Overseas, John Lowe (1998). ISBN: 978-0-415-13617-2. This pamphlet examines the course and objectives of British foreign policy during a period when its role as a world power became pre-eminent. It discusses Britain’s changing relations with other European great powers and with the United States. It also explains how, and with what consequences, Great Britain claimed increasing influence in Asia and Africa and particularly in Afghanistan, South Africa and Egypt. The Pamphlet also discusses the roles of such key figures as Canning, Palmerston, Gladstone and Disraeli. The author discusses British attitudes to empire, and analyses the influence of socio-economic, military and political factors on foreign affairs.
- The Great Reform Act of 1832, Eric J. Evans (2nd edn, 1994). ISBN: 978-0-415-11793-3. The 1832 Reform Act was a watershed in the history of modern Britain, profoundly affecting the composition of parliament and the course of all subsequent legislation. This second edition extends and updates Professor Evans’s classic 1983 account of the crucial political and economic issues. The Pamphlets highlights, and explains the significance of, the travails of Toryism at the end of the 1820s. It clarifies complex questions of policy and the reaction of the authorities to extra-parliamentary pressure during the reform crisis of 1829-32. The Pamphlet also discusses the connections between the Reform Act of 1832 and subsequent radical activity and reform legislation. Electoral statistics are revised in the light of recent research. Professor Evan’s study presents an accessible and stimulating guide to the student of modern political history.
- Sir Robert Peel: Statesmanship, Power and Party,
Eric J. Evans (2nd edn, 2006). ISBN: 978-0-415-36616-8. This extensively revised and expanded new edition draws on the conclusions of recent research and attempts to provide a balanced view of a prime minister whose reputation among scholars has changed considerably over the past thirty years or so. It argues that Peel was an efficient administrator who got things done. He prepared the way for the so-called ‘Great Victorian Boom’, while earning the reputation of a man who enabled working people to afford cheaper bread. His reputation among fellow politicians was, however, lower. Although the dominant political figures of the 1830s and 1840s, he was a controversial and frequently unpopular figure, lacking both intellectual flexibility and political sensitivity. His arrogance and his personalised conception of the ‘the national interest’, rather than the inadequacies of his backbenchers, were largely responsible for the break-up of the Conservative party in 1846 and for the generation in the political wilderness which the party suffered thereafter. This reassessment of Peel’s career sheds new light both on a major political figure and, more widely, on party politics in the first half of the nineteenth century.
- Chartism, John K. Walton (1999). ISBN: 978-0-415-09689-8. An essential introduction to the Chartism movement, this book examines the key debates surrounding the topic. As well as providing a concise chronological background to the movement, Professor Walton explains the legislative, political and economic objectives of the Chartists. He also argues that Chartism is not to be seen as a movement purely reactive to economic dislocation and widespread unemployment but as one which developed a distinctive and impressive momentum of its own. Its ideas had been fomenting for many years before the Charter was drawn up. The author explains patterns of regional and local support and explains why, after 1848, Chartism retreated to the margins of political life. He is, however, at pains to articulate Chartist successes as well as the failure to obtain the ‘Six Points’. He explains the influence which Chartism was able to exert over many of the period’s most contentious issues, including the movement for Poor Law reform, the repeal of the Corn Laws, trade union rights and factory reform. He also draws attention to the development of the distinctively working-class ‘languages’ and ‘discourse’ of Chartism in songs, gesture and propaganda.
- Napoleon III and the Second Empire, Roger D. Price (1997). ISBN: 978-0-415-15433-2. In this Pamphlet, Roger D. Price considers the mid-century crisis which provided Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte with the opportunity to gain elective office as President. He explains how he became Emperor and outlines his objectives. He explains that the impact of policies deriving from these objectives were often limited because Napoleon pursued personal ambitions which sometimes conflicted with the needs of the Church and the business community. His commitment to waging war as an instrument of policy was real but risky since neither the efficiency of the army as a whole nor the abilities of its generals provided a secure basis for conflict, as was demonstrated in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. After surveying Napoleon III's political, economic and social policies, Professor Price provides a survey of both the Emperor and his regime which takes account of new research and of changing historical attitudes to the period.
- The Unification of Italy, John Gooch (1986). ISBN: 978-0-415-04595-9. Italian Unification was one of the key developments in 19th-century European history. In this Pamphlet, Professor Gooch provides a clear account of the key steps in the movement towards Unification. He discusses the reasons for Piedmont's prominence in the 1850s and assesses the roles of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel III and Garibaldi, explaining why foreign intervention was so important in accelerating the unification process. In his historiographical survey, Professor Gooch demonstrates that the path to the unification of Italy was neither straightforward nor pre-ordained. He presents it as a haphazard, even messy, process which left Italy in the hands of a ruling elite. Political unification was not accompanied by any significant social change. Italy therefore emerged as a theoretically united, but in reality very diverse, state. The relatively small proportion of Italians who actually spoke Italian when Italian unification was secured was symbolic of a wider ambivalence of identity which would make the new state difficult to rule effectively.
- The Second Reform Act, John K. Walton (1987). ISBN: 078-0-415-10432-7. In this Pamphlet, Professor Walton explains the ways in which the Second Reform Act, albeit at a distance of thirty-five years, was a logical outcome of the passage of the First, since politicians at Westminster became more confident that a further extension of the franchise could be safely managed. Unlike the First Reform Act, the Second owed relatively little to extra-parliamentary protest. Its consequences were substantial and Professor Walton devotes much attention to discussing the extent to which its passage affected the development of political parties and organisation. He also provides an assesssment of the overall impact of a change which saw a working-class majority among voters in many of the larger cities. Professor Walton explains how this Act contributed to the growing power of the Liberal and Conservative party machines and also to the growing influence of government over backbench opinion and initiatives in the House of Commons. He suggests that the Act was intended to enfranchise respectable working men in the urban areas, while leaving the less-respectable ‘residuum’ (as the Victorians called them) without the vote.
- Gladstone and the Liberal Party, Michael J. Winstanley (1990). ISBN: 978-0-415-03574-0. Without doubt, Gladstone was the dominant politician of his age. His career in Parliament spanned sixty-two years. He was prime minister on four occasions for a total of almost thirteen years. Despite the highest of public profiles he was one of the most enigmatic of political leaders and Dr Winstanley's wide-ranging treatment attempts to assess his character, his achievements and his reputation. He explains how much of his economic policy, not least his unwavering commitment to free-trade, derived from his long association with his mentor, Robert Peel. The extent of his commitment to moral certainties derived from a strong religious faith but, as Dr Winstanley explains, these certainties brought little political benefit. Gladstone was widely accused by some of bringing religious issues heavy-handedly into public life and by others of rank hypocrisy. Both political allies, frustratedly, and opponents, sometimes gratefully, believed that Gladstone remained on the stage for too long and that his ideas and attitudes seemed increasingly anachronistic in late Victorian Britain. Dr Winstanley explains why he was a difficult man to fathom and why his political reputation is still vigorously debated by historians.
- Ireland and the Land Question 1800-1922,
Michael J. Winstanley (1984). ISBN: 978-0-416-37420-4. Nineteenth-century Ireland was frequently both disturbed and a major item on the political agenda of the United Kingdom. Nationalists wished to repeal the Act of Union of 1800 which, they had both falsely and forcibly yoked Ireland to the rest of the United Kingdom. In this Pamphlet, Dr Winstanley concentrates on the economic and social aspects of Irish history. He asks whether nineteenth-century Ireland can be simply characterised as a land of impoverished peasants oppressed by laws passed in a Parliament to which nationalists owed little allegiance and ruled by absentee landlords. He examines the nature, and extent, of English conception of Irish problems and argues that a partial understanding of those problems helps to explain why so much of the legislation passed in order to calm Irish sensibilities and to defuse crisis often had the opposite effect. The book also places the Famine of 1845-7, for many Irishmen both the symbol of the misgovernment of Ireland and the proof that the English were not worthy of governing the country, into the context of the Land Question as a whole. He argues that many of the rural problems afflicting Ireland were also experienced, to a greater or lesser extent, by farmers in England, Wales and Scotland too. The difference was that Ireland experienced little or no countervailing industrial and commercial expansion to provide alternative employment for a sufficiently large proportion of the population.
- Disraeli, John K. Walton (1990). ISBN: 978-0-415-00059-9. As Professor Walton states in this Pamphlet, ‘Benjamin Disraeli is one of those rare politicians whose importance adds up to more than the sum of their deeds’. It is therefore appropriate that he concentrates on Disraeli’s image and why image-making in a political leader was becoming increasingly important. Disraeli rapidly became something of a cult figure after his death and Professor Walton explains how, and why, this was so. His validity of his reputation as the founder of the modern Conservative party is assessed and Professor Walton also explains what Disraeli considered to be the most important responsibilities of a political leader. The Pamphlet evaluates the extent to which Disraeli was committed to ‘elevating the condition of the people’ and his commitment to the continued primacy of aristocratic rule. The book also explains the cardinal principles of Disraeli's foreign policy and the importance of the Empire as a central plank in the evolution of ‘Britishness’.
- Bismarck and the German Empire, 1871-1918, Lynn Abrams (1995). ISBN: 978-0-415-07781-8. Bismarck's German Empire has been seen as a paradox, combining an advanced industrial economy and diverse social structure with an authoritarian political system. Lynn Abrams examines this view in the light of recent research. Her Pamphlet describes the political, economic and social structures of the Empire in 1871 and examines the repressive and manipulative techniques employed by Bismarck between 1871 and 1890 to consolidate the regime and maintain the status quo. She discusses the confrontation and mobilisation of public opinion which characterised Wilhelm II’s reign. The Pamphlet ends with a discussion of the outbreak and experience of the First World War from a German perspective in which Dr Abrams explains why the war precipitated revolution in 1918-19 and the overthrow of the Wilhelmine empire.
- The Origins of the First World War, Ruth Henig (3rd edn, 2002). ISBN: 978-0-415-26185-6. This Pamphlet synthesizes an immense amount of secondary literature concerning responsibility for the outbreak of perhaps the most significant war in human history. It concentrates on the significance of Germany’s emergence as a united nation from 1871 and also on why it was immediately acknowledged as a great power. Dr Henig also discusses the various interpretations of the origins of the conflict - competing alliance systems, the Balkans as a ‘powder keg’, planned military aggression by the Axis powers, and events which just spiralled out of anyone’s control. The Pamphlet also considers the view that war in 1914 resulted from rational, if cold-blooded and misguided, calculations by the great powers that armed conflict was in their best interests.
- The Partition of Africa: And European Imperialism 1880-1900, John Mackenzie (1983). ISBN/ISSN: 0-416-35050-X. The Partition of Africa involved the annexation by European states of more than 10m square miles of territory and direct rule over more than 100m Africans. It took place in little over a decade at the end the nineteenth century. Though Partition may have seemed an inevitable process, it provoked controversy at the time and still plays an important role in contemporary discussions about Empire, where ideological heat sometimes obscures the light cast by more dispassionate historical research on causation, objectives and timing. In his measured analysis, Professor Mackenzie explains why the European powers ceased their long-standing process of nibbling at Africa and, with apparent suddenness, seized huge chunks of the Continent. He emphasizes both the increasing importance of finance capital in moves towards Partition and also the growing perception of the great powers that being in the forefront of any race to acquire imperial territories would serve as an insurance policy against any impending general crisis, be it economic or political.
- The Women’s Movement in Britain 1790-1945, Linda Walker (2004). ISBN: 978-0-415-15051-5. In this accessible and well-researched introduction to the Women’s Movement, Walker explains the causes of the social and economic changes which transformed many women’s lives. It discusses a range of key factors, including: the historical background of feminism; the emergence of a feminist discourse; Victorian and Edwardian suffrage campaigns; women in the labour market and their role in trade unions; women’s growing political role and their impact on political parties; the impact of war and feminism in the inter-war period. Dr Walker also analyses the response of anti-suffragists and government response, including the main suffrage bills.
- The Rise of the Labour Party, 1893-1931,
Gordon Phillips (1992). ISBN: 978-0-415-04051-5. This pamphlet examines why the Labour party came into being, laying particular stress on the growing influence of the trade unions. It notes, however, that a large proportion of working people remained outside the union movement. They were not, therefore, necessarily in the forefront of Labour thinking in the early years. Dr Phillips explains the rapid, and surprising, growth of the new party when faced with two established and entrenched political parties. He analyses the reasons why this new party was able to take office, albeit as minority governments, twice in the 1920s. He gives particular attention to the constituent elements that made up the party and the nature of its support. He discusses the party’s predominant attitudes, ideology and policies in this period and evaluates the extent to which Labour’s success as the ‘party of the working man’ was dependent upon the emergence of new ‘class-based’ politics early in the twentieth century.
- Lloyd George, Stephen Constantine (1992). ISBN: 978-0-415-06573-9. David Lloyd George was one of the most important and, some would say, disruptive politicians of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In this Pamphlet, Dr Stephen Constantine traces the course of his career, concentrating both on his contribution to the Liberal party and to the development of a radically new welfare system. He discusses the importance of his 'Welshness' and how far his nonconformist background contributed to the strong anti-aristocratic feelings which he harboured especially in the first half of his career. He analyses Lloyd George’s policies and why he believed that the state should take much more direct responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. He explains how he became prime minister in 1916 and discusses his contribution to the winning of the First World War. He also explains how, in effect, he became the prisoner of his Conservative opponents while still Prime Minister, and why, after they cut him adrift in 1922, he remained prominent in public life but never again held government office.
- The Origins of the Russian Revolution,
Alan Wood ((3rd edn, 2003). ISBN: 978-0-415-30734-1. The Bolshevik revolution of 1917 has been described as the most important political event in the history of the twentieth century, precipitating a fierce ideological war between European states while also making possible what amounted to the forced modernisation of Russia as the new Soviet Union. In this Pamphlet, Dr Wood traces the key developments which took place, from the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 to the Bolshevik uprising, which was the second revolution to occur in Russia in 1917. He pays particular attention to the anti-Tsarist, revolutionary, tradition in Russia and explains how close the regime came to collapse in 1905. He also discusses the importance of the First World War in creating conditions which made revolution more likely. This third edition makes use of archive material available only since the collapse of the Soviet Empire, which enables historians to penetrate behind the formidable wall of Bolshevik propaganda. The Pamphlet pays particular attention to the social forces which contributed to the collapse of the Tsarist regime.
- Versailles and After, 1919-1933, Ruth Henig (2nd edn, 1995). ISBN: 978-0-415-12710-6. This fully revised and extended second edition includes a new chapter which concentrates on recent historiography. The Pamphlet provides details of the key diplomatic initiatives of the post-war period. It explains why the Treaty of Versailles contained the terms it did and why it was controversial both for ‘winner’ and ‘loser’ states in the First World War. It explains why the League of Nations proved inadequate to the task of acting as a supranational peacekeeping body, asking whether the League failed more because of the huge problems it faced or because of its own internal weaknesses. The Pamphlet also explains why the high hopes of politicians and diplomats that the First World War could prove to be the ‘war to end wars’ rapidly faded.
- The Weimar Republic 1919-1933, Ruth Henig (1998). ISBN: 978-0-415-13284-3. This Pamphlet provides a much-needed reappraisal of Germany in the 1920s and early 1930s, examining the political, social and economic aims of the new republic, their failure and how the failure of the Republic made possible the emergence of a Nazi regime - and eventually World War II. The author examines the consequences of World War I and bitter legacy of the Treaty of Versailles. Dr Henig discusses the early years of crisis which culminated in the occupation of the Ruhr and Dawes Settlement. She assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the leadership of Stresemann and Bruning before exploring the circumstances which lead to the rise of Hitler. The Pamphlet also provides an outline historiography of the Weimar Republic.
- Social Conditions in Britain 1918-1939,
Stephen Constantine (1984). ISBN: 978-0-416-36010-6. The image of inter-war Britain remains for many people one of depression, unemployment and ‘the Dole’. The politicians of the period are often considered as spineless and unable to meet the economic challenges which faced them. In this Pamphlet, Dr Stephen Constantine explains why this is misleadingly one-sided. He explains why, after a very brief boom immediately after the end of the First World War, levels of unemployment rose. They remained obstinately and damaginly high in many areas of Britain throughout the inter-war period. He portrays Britain between the Wars as a nation in transition. Both the main heavy industries - coal & shipbuilding - and textiles found it increasingly difficult to meet the demands of foreign competition. These industries had provided so many jobs in Victorian and Edwardian Britain. The advent of what amounted to be world-wide depression after the USA’s Wall Street Crash in 1929 made things much worse. Dr Constantine explains that, with the exception of a few years in the late 20s and early 30s, however, severe depression and mass unemployment were regionally concentrated, especially in South Wales, the North East and in the old industrial areas of Scotland, Lancashire and Yorkshire. In the midlands and south of England, by stark contrast, new manufacturing, electrical and leisure industries grew and working people in these areas enjoyed a period of prosperity on the back of low prices and, for the first time for working people, affordable mortgages.
- Mussolini and Fascist Italy, Martin Blinkhorn ((3rd edn, 2006). ISBN: 978-0-415-26207-0. Martin Blinkhorn explains the significance of the movement which came to dominate Italian life between 1922 and the Second World War. He examines: the movement’s origins in the context of the economic problems of post-Risorgimento Italy; the social and political convulsions wrought by economic change after 1890; the essential background to the movement’s acquisition of power and the firm establishment of the Fascist regime in 1925; the movement's history until its demise during the Second World War, analysing in particular the personal rule of Mussolini and the structure of the Fascist state. Fully revised and updated in the light of recent research, this new edition provides an excellent and accessible, yet authoritative, introduction to what motivated Mussolini, to what that fluid and often contradictory ideology known as Fascism actually was and to how Fascist Italy developed under his leadership.
- Stalin and Stalinism, Alan Wood (2nd edn 2005). ISBN: 978-0-415-30732-5. Stalin is one of the most enigmatic and brutal, as well as one of the most important, political leaders of the twentieth century. This book considers his rise to power and the nature of his rule both during the drive to modernization in the 1030s and during the Second World War. It provides an assessment of the Purges in their wider context and explains why the legacy of Stalin’s rule has been so complex and ambiguous. In this second edition, Dr Wood pays particular attention to Stalin’s role in the Civil War which the Bolsheviks had to fight in order to claim control over the whole of Russia and also to the social and cultural aspects of Stalinism.
- Democracy and Civil War in Spain 1931-1939,
Martin Blinkhorn (1988). ISBN: 978-0-415-00699-6. As the author of this book explains, the Spanish civil war has acquired an iconic status. It drew large numbers of foreign volunteers from across Europe and even further afield to fight in what they saw as an ideological conflict against the onward march of Fascism. This perspective, heightened by the literature of such giants as George Orwell and Ernest Hemingway, by the art of Picasso and much haunting war photography, have fixed in the mind a powerful image of the conflict. It does, of course, distort, not least because it pays relatively little attention either to the longer-terms origins of the civil war or to the distinctive Spanish nature of the conflict. Professor Blinkhorn places the War into a wider context. He explains why the infant democracy, which had been established in 1931, did not have powers of survival. In explaining the origins of the war, he examines regional and other divisions within Spain. He discusses why the war was so bloody and merciless and he also debates the extent of the ideological nature of the conflict. Were the opponents of Franco and the Nationalists correct to describe them as ‘Fascists’? Finally, Professor Blinkhorn explains why, despite substantial international opposition, Franco won.
- Hitler and Nazism, Richard Geary (2nd edn. 2000). ISBN: 978-0-415-20226-4. The second edition of Professor Geary's authoritative introduction to the Nazi regime in the 1930s gives emphasis to Nazi domestic policy. He pays special attention to Hitler's beliefs and to the extent to which these determined Nazi policy. He explains how, and why, the Nazis were able to come to power in 1933, urging readers not to believe that this represented some distinctive, yet collectively German, folly. He notes that many of Hitler's views were widely shared among politicians and other influential folk in inter-war Europe. It is, however, important to understand that the Germans had not found any kind of democratic consensus in the Weimar Republic and this undoubtedly enhanced the chances of extremist parties. Geary discusses both the nature and the structure of government in the Third Reich, arguing that Hitler's regime was ‘terroristic’ both by choice and as an instrument of policy to achieve rapid change. It also discusses key themes such as modernisaton, gender and racial hygiene. The final substantive chapter discusses the impact of the war on the regime and both the origins and implementation of the Holocaust.
- The Origins of the Second World War 1933-1939, Ruth Henig (2nd edn 1993). ISBN: 978-0-415-33262-1. In this book Dr Henig considers both long and short-term causes of the War and whether the policies of appeasement favoured by Britain and France made war more likely or enabled the allies eventually to fight that war better prepared. She studies the implications of Hitler’s determination to wipe away the stain of Versailles and to build up territory in the East and asks whether Hitler, as many contemporary commentators argued, could have been stopped if he had been challenged earlier. She also analyses the complex causal factors released by the quite different, but significant, ambitions of Italy, Japan and Russia as well as of Germany itself.
- Franklin D. Roosevelt: The New Deal and War,
Michael Heale (1999). ISBN: 978-0-415-14588-0. Franklin Roosevelt was one of the most influential political figures of the twentieth century. This compact study assesses the personality of the US’s longest-serving president and his political and economic policies in war and peace. Professor Heale explains how the impact of economic crisis following the Wall Street Crash enabled Roosevelt to become President in 1933 and how he used ‘stabilising mechanisms’ to prevent unrestricted capitalism from careering out of control during the Depression. He also discusses Roosevelt’s modernisation the structures of a balanced government which had been designed to meet the challenges of the late eighteenth century rather than those faced by a much larger, more diverse and more industrial state. Professor Heale analyses the key features of Roosevelt's domestic policy and explains why what was widely considered to be his encouragement of the idea of ‘big government’ proved so controversial. Many US citizens fiercely contested Roosvelt's affirmation in 1938 that ‘Government has a final responsibility for the well-being of its citizenship’. Heale also discusses the foreign policy of Roosevelt both in the years leading up to the Second World War. He explains how Roosevelt’s statesmanship both before and during the War contributed to the abandonment of United States's increasingly unrealistic policy of ‘standing aloof’ from the squabbles of the European ‘Old World’ and prepared the way for US ‘superpower status’ from 1945.
- Attlee's Labour Governments, 1945-51, Robert Pearce (1994). ISBN: 978-0-415-08893-3. The Labour governments of 1945-51 are among the most important and controversial in modern British history. Labour was committed to reducing inequalities in taxation and saw policies of redistributive taxation and national ownerhip of key elements in production and distribution as effective ways of achieving this. Attlee’s government also made a legislative reality of the key elements of the Beveridge Report, including the emergence of a Welfare State committed to care for the population ‘from the cradle to the grave’. It is hardly surprising that the work of the Labour governments and their impact on society have been the focus of extensive research from the 1950s onwards. In this study, Robert Pearce makes the results of this research available in a concise and accessible form, whilst encouraging students to formulate their own interpretations. He examines the key personalities and abilities in a government widely considered to be one of the most able of the twentieth century and he places their work firmly within the wider context of Labour history since 1900. He provides a balance sheet of the achievements of Labour in domestic, foreign and imperial affairs.
- Ireland in Conflict, 1922-1998, T.G. Fraser, (1999). ISBN: 978-0-415-16549-0. Professor Fraser’s Pamphlet sets out the main political, economic and social developments in Ireland, north and south of the border, since the 1922 treaty. The Pamphlet explains the troubles in their context and examines the underlying tensions which led to prolonged violence from the late 1960s after a period of relative civil peace and rising prosperity. The key themes discussed include: the Civil War and its legacy for Irish politics; the importance of the Boundary Commission; the rise and development of the IRA; the importance of the Orange Order in the politics of Northern Ireland; the Unionist party; the role of the Catholic Church and the Protestant minority; the escalation of violence in the 1970s, including Bloody Sunday and the hunger strikes; and finally the Anglo-Irish agreement, the cease-fire and the difficult, frustrating and protracted process which eventually produced workable proposals for a peaceful solution.
- The Cold War: 1945-1991, John W. Mason (1997). ISBN: 978- 0-415-14278-4. Drawing on an extensive corpus of recent research, the author provides a concise coverage of Cold War as a whole. He pays particular attention to the main protagonists, the USSR and the USA and their perception of ‘spheres of influence’. The Pamphlet explains the origins of the conflict and examines how, and why, the existence, and substantial development and expansion, of nuclear weapons helped to define the Cold War as a whole. The author discusses the involvement of other nations and regions, particularly China and asks how far, despite the role of other states, the Cold War was, at root, an ideological struggle between the two superpowers. It also asks whether the Cold War, despite its potential for devastating conflagration, actually secured stability of a sort. The book ends with an explanation of how the cold war ended, including discussion of the extent to which perspectives about ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in this conflict changed with the arrival of a new generation of Soviet leaders in the 1980s.