SPECIAL ISSUES & COLLECTIONS 2013
Preface Leegood & Long
Photorespiratory bypasses: how can they work? Peterhansel et al.
Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms. Maurino and Weber
The objectives of this paper are to summarize the principles of root/rhizosphere management and provide an overview of some successful case studies on how to exploit the biological potential of root system and rhizosphere processes to improve crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency.
The purpose of this review is to explore some of the ways in which understanding root systems and their interactions with soils could contribute to the development of more sustainable systems of intensive production. Physical interactions with soil particles limit root growth if soils are dense, but root–soil contact is essential for optimal growth and uptake of water and nutrients.
To gain an understanding of how apoplastic ROS levels change under water stress, cerium chloride staining was used in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy to examine the spatial distribution of apoplastic H2O2. The results revealed that apoplastic H2O2 levels increased specifically in the apical region of the growth zone under water stress, correlating spatially with the maintenance of cell elongation.
Soil conditions and cereal root system architecture: review and considerations for linking Darwin and Weaver. Rich & Watt
Here we review how soil conditions influence root system architecture; focusing on cereals. Cereals provide half of human calories, and their root systems differ from those of dicotyledons. We find that few controlled-environment studies combine more than one soil stimulus and, those that do, highlight the complexity of responses.
On the move: Induced resistance in monocots. Balmer et al.
Although plants possess an arsenal of constitutive defences such as structural barriers and preformed antimicrobial defences, many attackers are able to overcome the pre-existing defence layers. In this review, current facts and trends concerning basal immunity, and systemic acquired/induced systemic resistance in the defence of monocots against pathogens and herbivores will be summarized.
Microbial recognition and evasion of host immunity. Pel and Pieterse
Evasion of host immune recognition is less well studied but is emerging as another important strategy. Escape from recognition by the host’s immune system can be caused by alterations in the structure of the recognized MAMPs, or by active intervention of ligand-receptor recognition. This paper reviews the structure and recognition of common MAMPs and the ways that plant-associated microbes have evolved to prevent detection by their host.
Soil abiotic factors influence interactions between below ground herbivores and plant roots. Erb and Lu
Root herbivores are important ecosystem drivers and agricultural pests, and, possibly as a consequence, plants protect their roots using a variety of defensive strategies. One aspect that distinguishes belowground from aboveground plant–insect interactions is that roots are constantly exposed to a set of soil-specific abiotic factors. These factors can profoundly influence root resistance, and, consequently, the outcome of the interaction with belowground feeders. In this review, we synthesize the current literature on the impact of soil moisture, nutrients, and texture on root–herbivore interactions.
Since induced resistance is a host response, its expression under field conditions is likely to be influenced by a number of factors, including the environment, genotype, crop nutrition and the extent to which plants are already induced. Although research in this area has increased over the last few years, our understanding of the impact of these influences on the expression of induced resistance is still poor.
Priming of plant immune responses, alterations in phytohormone homeostasis, regulation of iron homeostasis, silicon-driven photorespiration and interaction with defence signalling components all are potential mechanisms involved in regulating silicon-triggered resistance responses. Further elucidating how silicon exerts its beneficial properties may create new avenues for developing plants that are better able to withstand multiple attackers.
The molecular architecture of the plant nuclear pore complex. Tamura and Hara-Nishimura
The nucleus contains the cell’s genetic material, which directs cellular activity via gene regulation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the plant NPC proteome and address structural and functional aspects of plant nucleoporins, which support the fundamental cellular machinery.
The plant nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a critical controlling element in this nucleocytoplasmic movement of protein and RNA. The NPC is comprised of approximately 30 nucleoporin proteins arranged in radial symmetry around the central pore. Here is presented an overview as to how the members of the plant NPC affect signalling pathways, highlighting the progress and difficulties within this research area.
Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms. DA Korasick, TA Enders & L Strader
This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development.
Tuning the auxin transcriptional response Pierre-Jerome, Moss & Nemhauser
How does auxin provoke such a diverse array of responses? We review what is currently known about differences between family members of the components that make up the auxin response complex, as well as areas of potential differences in their interactions outside of the core module
Auxin: simply complicated M Sauer, S Robert, & J Kleine-Vehn
Auxin is a plant hormone involved in an extraordinarily broad variety of biological mechanisms. These range from basic cellular processes, such as endocytosis, cell polarity and cell cycle control over localized responses like cell elongation and differential growth, to macroscopic phenomena such as embryogenesis, tissue patterning and de novo formation of organs. This review gives an overview of these rather recent and emerging areas of auxin research, and tries to formulate some of the open questions.
Auxin and self-organization at the shoot apical meristem. M Sassi & T Vernoux
This review discusses both the experimental and theoretical evidence for the implication of auxin in the control of organogenesis and self organization of the shoot apical meristem.
The role of auxin in shaping shoot architecture. Andrea Gallavotti
Recent advances in deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate auxin function have produced several tools to investigate how auxin affects the establishment and plasticity of plant morphology. Here the extensive evidence that connects auxin and its biology with the determination of plant shoot architecture is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the most recent discoveries in two well-studied model plant systems, the dicotyledonous Arabidopsis and the monocot maize.
Lateral root initiation is a probabilistic event whose frequency is set by fluctuating levels of auxin response MJ Laskoswski
This review assesses the sequence of molecular events that lead to lateral root formation in relation to the locations in which they occur, addresses how nutrients regulate the response generally though not exclusively by altering sensitivity to auxin, and finally considers the factors that control auxin levels.
Auxin and the Arabidopsis thaliana gynoecium. E Larsson, RG Franks & E Sundberg
This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of how auxin biosynthesis, transport and responses together generate specific gynoecial domains. It also highlights areas where future research endeavors are likely to provide additional insight into the homeostatic molecular mechanisms by which auxin regulates gynoecium development
Evidence of oxidative attenuation of auxin signalling. WA Peer, Y Chen & AS Murphy
This report summarizes previously published data and show additional data regarding oxIAA is generation in planta, oxIAA as a substrate in transport assays, and oxIAA as a signalling molecule in auxin-mediate responses. It then examine the relationship between IAA and ROS generation, and oxIAA levels in ROS scavenging mutants.
Although organisms cannot obviate the effects of physical laws and processes, the consequences of these effects can be altered by ontogenetic or phylogenetic alterations in geometry, shape, or orientation as well as in body size. This examination shows how physical laws limit phenotypic expression, but how they also simultaneously provide alternative, potentially adaptive possibilities.
A comprehensive set of biomechanical functional traits to analyse the ecological strategies of trees: beyond wood density and rigidity. Fournier et al.
Plant micro and nanomechanics. I Burgert & T Keplinger
Shrinking the hammer: micromechanical approaches to morphogenesis. P Milani, SA Braybrook & A Boudaoud
Root growth and function in a structured soil. Jin et al.
Slow, fast and furious: understanding the physics of plant movements. Y Forterre
On the role of stress anisotropy in the growth of stems. TI Baskin and OE Jensen
The modes of deformation of walled cells. J Dumais
A force of nature: molecular mechanisms of mechanoperception in plants. GB Monshausen & ES Haswell
Mechanical control of morphogenesis at the shoot apex. Robinson et al.
The cellular mechanics of an invasive life style. AA Nezhad & A Geitmann
Methods for measuring plant vulnerability to cavitation: a critical review. Cochard et al.
This review assesses possible positive or negative effects of the introduction of a CO2-concentrating mechanism in C3 crop species on crop potential productivity and yield robustness.
Measurement of the matric potential of soil water WR Whalley, ES Ober & M Jenkins
In this review, the relationship between matric potential and soil water content is explored. A critique of current methods to measure matric potential is presented together with the limitations of current methods as well as underexploited opportunities.
Thermography to explore plant-environment interactions JM Costa, OM Grant, MM Chaves
This review presents and discusses the advantages of thermal imaging applications to plant science, agriculture, and ecology, as well as its limitations and possible approaches to minimize them, by highlighting examples from previous and ongoing research.
Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis: a guide to good practice and understanding some new applications EH Murchie & T Lawson
Techniques in plant metabolic ecology Brunetti et al.
Crawling leaves: photosynthesis in sacoglossan sea slugs Cruz et al.
The dominant presence of tocotrienols in Arecaceae reveals that they can substitute tocopherols in the dormant seeds of some taxa
Ontogeny strongly and differentially alters leaf economic and other key traits in three diverse Helianthus species
Uncorrelated evolution of floral and foliar vein densities across the angiosperm tree of life
Is it easy to move and easy to evolve? Evolutionary accessibility and adaptation
How do leaf veins influence the worldwide leaf economic spectrum? Review and synthesis
The evolution of autotrophy in relation to phosphorus requirement
Did greater burial depth increase the seed size of domesticated legumes?
Uncorrelated evolution of leaf and petal venation patterns across the angiosperm phylogeny
Peptides as pathogenic signatures induce plant defence M Albert & G Felix
Take a deep breath: peptide signaling in stomatal patterning and differentiation K Toori
GOLVEN peptide signaling controls different developmental processes in the root A Fernandez, P Hilson & T Beeckman
IDA a peptide ligand regulating cell separation processes in plants M Butenko
CLE family R Simon & Y Stahl
Talking cells: what do they decide? I De Smet
NEVERSHED and INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION are differentially required for cell expansion and cell separation during floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana Liu et al.
Regulation of plant vascular stem cells by endodermis-derived EPFL-family peptide hormones and phloem-expressed ERECTA-family receptor kinases N Uchida & M Tasaka
Mining the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana as a basis for the identification of novel bioactive peptides involved in oxidative stress tolerance De Coninck et al.
Taking transgenic rice drought screening to the field Gaudin et al.
The molecular architecture of the plant nuclear pore complex Tamura & Hara-Nishimura
In this review, we discuss recent advancements in CP29 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation studies and its physiological significance under environmental stresses in higher plants, especially in the monocotyledonous crops
This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development.
Sweet immunity in the plant circadian regulatory network Bolouri Moghaddam & Van den Ende