Charles Kingsley (1819-75). Author, clergyman and Christian Socialist. Educated at Cambridge University and ordained in 1842, Kingsley was opposed to the principles of the Oxford Movement. Inspired by F. D. Maurice and Thomas Carlyle, he was one of the founders of Christian Socialism in 1848. He was also associated with Chartism, contributing to Politics for the People under the pseudonym, 'Parson Lot'. Fraser's Magazine published his novel Yeast in 1848, but refused Alton Locke. Despite his sympathies with the working class, Kingsley was not a radical. Looking to religion as a means of social control, he aimed to reform society by encouraging the aristocracy to fulfil their duties rather than insisting that they surrender their privileges. He was involved in the founding of Macmillan's Magazine in 1859.