George Richmond (1809-1896), writing in the National Review, defends Ruskin from the attack by the conservative Quarterly Review and the Whig Edinburgh Review, following a similar defence from the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine, June 1856. Ruskin is portrayed as the Protestant hero, Luther, reforming art rather than religion (see here), his emphasis on observation of the natural world being contrasted favourably with the conventional methods of art teaching (see here). Richmond claims that Modern Painters I has resulted in the formation of the Pre-Raphaelites (see here). Although he accuses Ruskin's hostile critics of being unfair to Ruskin (see here), he is not totally sympathetic towards him. Richmond's reference to Ruskin's 'incompleteness' (see here) recalls the use of this word by the critic of Fraser's Magazine, June 1856, and he shares a similarly hostility to Ruskin's comparison of art to language (see here) (see here) as that expressed by Elizabeth Eastlake in the Quarterly Review, March 1856.